Mining 1830 - 1920
W. Griem, 2006 - 2021
Introduction to mining history 1830 - 1920
School and education
between 1830 and 1920 :
The society of the time understood that the key to all progress is education and the most important aspect is access to education for everyone. This includes school education and professional education:
During this period, there have been some fundamental
changes in the education system. Large sections of the population used
to be excluded from adequate education. The new education system reaches
all social classes. This new education system removes the old
"father-son" vocational training, and public schools or vocational
schools are formed.
We should also mention that the early entry into working life, i. e., child labor, had not made it possible for young people to receive an education;
Friedrich Engels wrote:
"Church and school are attended by very few, and the teachers complain of great drowsiness and dullness in all their curiosity for learning "
|List of mining schools and their founding year|
|founding year||Place, country|
|1775||Mining school of Clausthal, Harz (Germany)|
|1776||St. Petersburg (Russia)|
|1777||Academia de Minería, Almadén (Spain)|
|1798||Mining school of Eisleben (Germany)|
|1818||Mining school of Bochum, Germany (hoy: Georg Agricola)|
|1838||Bergschule (Mining school) Waldenburg, Polonia|
|1840||Montanlehranstalt, Leoben (Austria)|
|1851||London School of Mines (England)|
|1857||Escuela de Minas de Copiapó (Chile)|
|1874||Colorado School of Mines (U.S.A.)|
|1876||Escuela de Minas Ouro Preto (Brazil)|
|1876||Escuela de Ingeniería y Minas, Lima (Perú)|
|1887||Escuela de Minas La Serena (Chile)|
|1888||Camborne School of Mines (Cornwall, England)|
|1889||Montana Tech (U.S.A)|
|1896||South African School of Mines, Kimberley (South Africa)|
|W.Griem / www.geovirtual2.cl|
In this way, the "Escuela de Minas" was founded in Copiapó, the Copiapo mining school. In Chañarcillo the "ESCUELA PRACTICA DE EXPLOTACIÓN Y MENSURA DE MINAS" was opened in 1875.
The companies quickly realized that efficient mining was only possible with trained and professional miners. The high production rate, which the companies could only achieve through strong mechanization, could only be achieved with skilled personnel.
The curriculum of the old mining school in Chañarcillo is exciting. In two years, the students learned about mathematics, topography, geometry, geology, mineralogy, ventilation, and accounting. The curriculum of the school practices exploitation and measurement in mines (Escuela de Minas, location Chañarcillo) of Chañarcillo in summary: 1st year: Arithmetic and accounting of mines geometry applicable to graphic mapping mine excavations Compass and its uses mine ventilation, physics to pumps and steam engines. Practical study of copper, silver, and gold tests. 2nd year: equations and logarithms. Resolution of right triangles three-dimensional geometry Analytical mine mapping and analytical resolution of measurement problems. Study of tripod instruments. Mining of mines Mechanical preparation of minerals Applied geology explanations Mineralogy of metals mined in Chile and its main breeding grounds.
Curriculum of the Mine school in district of Chañarcillo in summary:
- Arithmetic and mine accounting
- Geometry applicable to the graphic drawing of planes
- Excavations of mines
- Compass and its uses
- Ventilation of mines, physics to pumps and steam engines.
- Practical study of copper, silver and gold tests.
- equations and logarithms. Resolution of right triangles
- Three dimensional geometry
- Analytical mine mapping and analytical resolution of measurement problems.
- Study of tripod instruments.
- Mine operation
- Mechanical preparation of minerals
- Applied geology explanations
- Mineralogy of metals mined in Chile and its main deposits
Biology class in 1929 at Copiapó
De: Guillermo Rojas Carrasco (1930): Liceo de Hombres Copiapó
Literature and Links
List of books
PHILIPPI, RUDOLPH AMANDUS (1860): REISE DURCH DIE WUESTE ATACAMA AUF BEFEHL DER CHILENISCHEN REGIERUNG IM SOMER 1853-54 UNTERNOMMEN UND BESCHRIEBEN. VON DR... NEBST EINER KARTE UND XXVII TAFELN HALLE Eduard Anton 1860
Historia del Partido Socialdemócrata en Alemania (en alemán)
SIMONIN, L. (1867): La vie Soutterraine ou les mines et les mineurs. - Paris, Libraire de L. Hachette et G.
History of mining 1830-1920
Intro epoch 1830-1920
● Educational impulse
Records of the period::
Gilliss: Apires and barreteros
Work conditions of miners
Los Mineros (Tornero 1872)
Apires y barreteros - Tornero
History of Geosciences
List of visitors
R.A. Philippi in Atacama
Paul Treutler in Atacama
Charles Darwin, Atacama (1835)
Ignacio Domeyko y Copiapó
Kunz en Copiapó
Hugo Kunz en Chañarcillo
Gilliss Mineros en Chañarcillo
Literature and links:
List of bibliography:
● SIMONIN, L. (1869): Underground life, Mines y Miners. - 522 páginas, Translated by H.W. Bristol; London; Chapman & Hall; 1869. (Collection W. Griem) - see page with more links
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