Mining 1830 - 1920
W. Griem, 2006 - 2021
Mining history 1830 - 1920
In the Atacama region, the period between 1830 and 1920 is characterized by a multitude of innovations and changes. A first phase of a new mining technology manifests itself in many deposits.
The period between 1830 and 1920 was characterized
by a multitude of technical inventions or improvements, which quickly
proved to be of great benefit in mining. For example, the use of the
railway as a means of transport has significantly increased the amount
of moving rock. The first rails were still made of wood, and the
trolleys had to be moved with human resources or horsepower. This new
technology led to a rapid increase in transport volumes. The first of
these wooden rails are known from Europe in the 16th century.
The steam engine was an important invention for the mining industry. But the machines, which were initially very inefficient, have been continuously improved.
Thomas Newcomen introduced the first steam-powered water pump around 1712, which resolved the mine water problem.
Richard Trevithick designed the first pressurized steam engine around 1801, which has much better efficiency.
Later, this steam engine becomes a "self-propelled" vehicle. Not only railways are driven by steam, but also tractors in agriculture, cars, buses, ships, and cranes. The development line of the steam engine shows an imposing course:
1825: First railway line in England between Stockton and Darlington
1830: First public railway route in England
1835: First railway route in Germany
1851: First track in Chile
1879: Siemens' first electric locomotive;
1881 first electrified line.
From 1833 onwards, some of the deeper mines were equipped with the so-called "Men Engine." A system of two moving bars or ropes running in opposite directions, which small platforms attached, helped the miners to get in or out of the mine. The miner was now able to enter the mine by simply changing the platforms quickly. The relatively simple system allowed it to reach depths of 200 to 400 meters rapidly. The often prolonged and time-consuming ways into and out of the mine were now past.
Crane in Huasco (Foto: W. Griem 2004) Large photo
Records of the period::
Gilliss: Apires and barreteros
Work conditions of miners
Los Mineros (Tornero 1872)
Apires y barreteros - Tornero
History of Geosciences
List of visitors
R.A. Philippi in Atacama
Paul Treutler in Atacama
Charles Darwin, Atacama (1835)
Ignacio Domeyko y Copiapó
Kunz en Copiapó
Hugo Kunz en Chañarcillo
Gilliss Mineros en Chañarcillo
Literature and links:
List of bibliography:
● SIMONIN, L. (1869): Underground life, Mines y Miners. - 522 páginas, Translated by H.W. Bristol; London; Chapman & Hall; 1869. (Collection W. Griem) - see page with more links
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